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Appearance of Urine

Monday, September 24th 2012. | General

Appearance of Urine Definition

Urine is normally clear, sterile, pale yellow. The usual appearance may vary depending on different circumstances.

The straw-colored urine from bile pigments soluble in water (soluble) that are normally eliminated by the kidneys.

The tone of the yellow color of urine depends on both the blood concentration of these pigments and disposal capacity of the kidneys (diuresis). The kidneys play a role in filtration and purification of the body to maintain constant levels in the elements of the internal environment (homeostasis).

If the water supply is low, the kidneys remove water and little amount of urine down. The urine is, therefore, concentrated and dark in color.

Appearance of Urine

Appearance of Urine (img thanks to uatest.com)

Conversely, if fluid intake is abundant, the amount of water removed is important to maintain a constant internal environment. Diuresis is important and the color of urine changes to very light yellow or transparent color to the water.

The coloration of urine abnormalities evidenced most often changes the internal environment of the body. They may also be related to kidney disease, urinary tract or bladder infection or with those organs.

What causes color change?

Urine can see the color change from very pale yellow to yellow without forgetting the very dark red in the presence of blood.

Straw yellow color of urine may be varied depending on the concentration of the importance of water supplies and, therefore, the amount of urine.

Low water supplies or extra-renal water losses significant (sweating) result in urine scanty and dark.

Conversely, fluid intake (water) will result in significant diuresis and urine abundant clear.

In addition, very dark urine may indicate liver dysfunction.

In contrast, in patients with renal insufficiency, the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine explains their color lighter than normal.

Cloudy urine?

Urinary disorders are often witnessed a high urinary tract infection (pyelonephritis) or low (cystitis, prostatitis).

It is important to inform the doctor about the possible existence of associated symptoms (fever, burning during urination, dysuria, that is, difficulty urinating …) that can direct toward a particular diagnosis.

Rapid urine tests can prove leukocyturia (concentration of white blood cells in urine ≥ 10 000/ml) and confirm the presence of nitrite (breakdown products of bacteria).

The urine culture (urine culture) confirmed the infection by enumeration and identification of the causative.

The presence of neutrophils is altered designated under the term of pyuria (pus in the urine).

The absence of detectable bacteria despite leukocyturia must seek TB (bacilli urinary intradermal tuberculin reaction).

In rare cases, cloudy urine indicate a removal of crystals (phosphates, carbonates, urates). The diagnosis is made by chemical analysis of urine.

Blood in the urine (hematuria)?

The presence of blood in the urine can have diverse causes but requires rapid exploration.

The presence of blood in the urine usually results in red staining of urine. All shades of red may exist, from bright red to brown. But all is not red urine hematuria hematuria and all do not give a red color to the urine:

- The red color of the urine may be linked to blood that is not original but urinary urethral origin. It is a uréthrorragie whose abundance, sometimes associated with blood clots, “contaminates” the urine during urination. Similarly, the blood may be of Relief (confusion is common in women);

- The red color of the urine may be due to the presence of foodborne dyes (beets, rhubarb) or drug (phenindione, rifampicin …) that can give a red color to the urine.

Very little blood is sufficient to stain positively urine (2-3 ml / l urine). This impressive symptom does not judge the amount of blood lost. It is rare because of its abundance and its duration, hematuria is associated with anemia or low blood pressure.

Hematuria can be microscopic, that is to say, not visible to the naked eye. It is then detected by urine dipsticks and confirmed by bacteriological examination cyto urinary urine culture.

The macroscopic hematuria – visible to the naked eye – may vary during urination:

- Initial hematuria, which occurs at the beginning of urination, the first color inkjet. She is originally from urethral or prostate;

- The terminal hematuria occurs at the end of urination. She is originally bladder. It is explained by the contraction of the bladder reaches its maximum at the end of urination. At the beginning of urination, the bladder drains clear urine then the contraction increases, the original bladder bleeding occur, which colors the urine eliminated last. It is imperative to find a cause;

Total hematuria, which colors all urination, no particular value locator.

Lactescentes urine?

Urine can be exceptionally lactescentes.
Milky urine color generally reflects communication between the lymphatic system and urine. 
We speak of chyluria (chyle presence of liquid rich in lipids in the urine).

This may be of chyluria :

- Parasitic : Lymphatic Filariasis is the most common.

- Post-traumatic or tumor: it is a less common cause.

Urine drinks?

The eruption of gas in the urine is pneumaturia gas (in urine).

The origin is either internal (communication between the colon and bladder called colo-vesical fistula) or external, usually after a survey that artificially introduced air into the bladder.

Feces in the urine?

The presence of feces in the urine is serious.

The presence of feces in the urine is of exceptional and can not be a coincidence.

It reflects a communication between the digestive tract (small intestine, colon) where feces and bladder is called fistulas ie a line connecting the two cavities.

What support?

Any change in the appearance of the urine should lead to more or less complex tests to determine the precise origin of this change. Once the diagnosis by the doctor, the treatment is of course of the disease responsible for the abnormal appearance of the urine.

Cloudy urine

It is most often a urinary tract infection.

If it is a trivial lower urinary tract infection (cystitis), the treatment is a large fluid intake (two liters per 24 hours) associated with antibiotic therapy. Healing is objectified by a urinalysis.

If it is an infection or prostate renal parenchymal (pyelonephritis, prostatitis), prolonged antibiotic therapy over time (21 days) is generally prescribed.


Treatment is the cause of hematuria. It may be the treatment of urinary tract infection, a kidney stone, ureteral or bladder, a tumor of the bladder, urinary tract, cancer of the kidney, urinary bilharziasis, d trauma.

Urine lactescentes

They are mostly due to a parasitic disease (filariasis) that requires specific treatment.

Drinks urine

Urine drinks are witnessing a fistula colo-vesical treatment is surgical.

Urine faecal

Again the treatment of uro-digestive fistula is surgical.

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