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Cystitis : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Saturday, August 11th 2012. | Disease, Uterine system

Cystitis Definition

Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder wall that can be related to an infection or a urinary bladder disease.

Women, for anatomical reasons, are more often affected than men by this pathology: the urethra, which allows the flow of urine to the outside is small and its opening is very close to the anus and the vagina which remains, even without any infection, a significant number of bacteria.

When these bacteria back into the bladder, they are causing an infection of the urine and inflammation of the bladder wall: the microbial acute cystitis is most often caused by bacteria (E . coli or E. coli). Symptoms (frequent urination, burns …) appear suddenly, without associated fever, and they quickly disappear under treatment.

Others with noninfectious bladder can cause similar symptoms: illness of the bladder wall (interstitial cystitis, tumors), gynecological or gastrointestinal diseases.


Cystitis (img thanks to articlealley.com)

How This Happening?

When bacteria migrate from the genito-anal region, they multiply in the urine and adherent to the bladder walls. This phenomenon results in a multiplication of local inflammation of the walls resulting in edema and occasionally small amounts of bleeding.

Firstly, since the infection is confined to the bladder and its walls, it is not associated with fever.

More tar germs reach the bladder by ascending. The close presence of the vagina and the anal region and the brevity of the female urethra opens at the vaginal vestibule explain the frequency of lower urinary tract infection in women. The germs most often involved are those present in the vagina and digestive tract where they even exist outside of any infection.

From the bladder colonization, germs can cause kidney and win pyelonephritis (kidney infection)

Cystitis Causes

Urinalysis is used to identify bacteria involved coexisting with white blood cells by the body to fight against infection and also, where appropriate, with red blood cells in greater or lesser amount.

Bacterial cystitis have the distinction of frequently recur. They should be treated to reduce the risk of progression from infection to the kidney through the urinary tract (ureter) or by blood.

What other causes of microbial cystitis?

The walls of the bladder can also become infected in other circumstances: when there is a bladder tumor or a polyp, in the aftermath of radiation therapy, if infected neighborhood (gynecological or gastrointestinal) or when a foreign body (calculation, parasite) is in the bladder. These cystitis occur more gradually than the bacterial cystitis in women and they are not rare in humans. Urinalysis confirms again the presence of a bacterium associated with that of white blood cells and sometimes blood.

Finally, certain violations of the bladder may be related to tuberculosis, but this disease since widespread vaccination, is exceptional in our country.

Cystitis other Causes

Some women complain of signs suggestive of cystitis (burning, frequent urination with emission of a small amount of urine) but examination of their urine is found either bacteria or white blood cells.

These conditions are referred to as cystalgie to clear urine, or cystopathie of overactive bladder, their origin has not yet been clearly elucidated: psychosomatic, hormonal or secondary to sexually transmitted infection.

Profound damage of the bladder wall, leading to reduced bladder capacity disabling (interstitial cystitis), also result in urinary symptoms similar to those of cystitis.

Cystitis Patient Feel

The symptoms of bacterial cystitis of women occur abruptly.

They combine a frequent urge to urinate (urinary frequency), most often accompanied by the emission of a small amount of urine, burning urination, or pain in the bladder.

Some women complain of severe pain immediately after urinating and a feeling of urination that persists even when the bladder is empty. Sometimes these signs are preceded by tingling during urination, a vaginal irritation or itching of vulvovaginal.

Bleeding can be observed at the end of urination (terminal hematuria). This sign is not pejorative, simply reflecting the bladder inflammation.

Fever and fatigue do not associate specific to urinary symptoms. The urine is cloudy and often strong odor.

Cystitis Diagnosis

General practitioner’s office or emergency room, one-minute test will confirm the diagnosis of cystitis. A test strip with several boxes of blotting paper are colored depending on the constituents is soaked in urine. In less than three minutes, we know if the urine is actually colonized by bacteria and whether there are signs of irritation of the bladder wall (white and red).

But this examination does not accurately detect the bacterium in question.

This is why a urine culture (urine culture) is usually prescribed. It helps determine which antibiotic the bacteria can be eliminated completely.

In practice the complete result of the review is received within 48 hours and, usually, a treatment known test is prescribed. It can later be adapted according to the results of urinalysis.

 When cystitis is recurrent or prolonged, or it occurs on unfamiliar ground, that is to say in a man, a child or an elderly woman, the urinalysis is routinely prescribed. A consultation with a urologist is most often recommended.

This specialist may need to prescribe additional examinations: ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys, CT urography, endoscopy of the bladder to see inside (urethrocystoscopy) in search of a foreign body, tumor, d a localized lesion.

Finally, a control study with voiding the rate of emptying of the bladder (flowmetry) and measurement of residual urine in the bladder after urination eliminates an anomaly drain causing the infection.

Cystitis Treatment

The treatment of cystitis involves an antibiotic.

Today, doctors prefer treatment courts 3 to 5 days for cystitis in young women. Minute treatments may also be prescribed: it is taken as a single dose antibiotics (one packet or more tablets) that are eliminated in the urine in three days. The antibiotic is generally prescribed before they get the result of the urinalysis, which is why, in some cases, treatment is not completely effective and must be adjusted.

It is also advisable to drink plenty (1.5 l per day), to empty her bladder regularly and treat constipation if applicable.

A personal hygiene products with low specific but is recommended, to avoid irritation, it is not necessary to repeat this action several times a day.

Finally, we must get used to empty the bladder after every sex, not because cystitis is a sexually transmitted infection, but because the normal bacteria in the genital area tend to go up into the bladder at the time reports by relaxing the perineum.

Cystitis Recurrent

Recurrent cystitis can seriously impair quality of life, even if they rarely put the health of patients at risk. We must, above all, check that the treatment prescribed antibiotic is suitable for germs in the urine.

If this is the case, relapse prevention is a priority, based on advice of hygiene (wash with mild soap) and diet (avoid constipation).

Sometimes, urologists are forced to prescribe long-term antibiotic treatment for infections especially recurrent. Finally, if the tests showed that there was a malformation of the bladder, surgery will be necessary.

Consumption of cranberry juice can reduce the risk of recurrence of infection in some women.

Cystitis Causative

Germs found in UTI vary depending on the character of primary or recurrent infection, mode of recruitment and etiology.

In 60 to 90% of cases, it is enterobacteria (bacteria under physiological conditions in the gut), foremost among which Escherichia coli (E. coli) represents more than half of urinary tract infections. The group Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia is found in 10-15% of cases, the Proteus group in 10 to 15%.

Outside the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was found in 10-15% of cases.

Once in three, two germs are present, the second being an enterococcus in general.

During an initial infection or if infection is isolated, the causative organism is almost always an E. coli, the presence of another organism to be investigated, organic abnormality of the urinary tract.

Cystitis specialist is concern

Mostly, these are general practitioners or emergency physicians who treat cystitis. Due to the brutality of the symptoms and the need to treat quickly to prevent complications, urgent consultation is required.

An examination of urine using a strip can be done in the office. It confirms the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in urine (pyuria). But it does not accurately detect the causative organism. A urinalysis is most often prescribed.

When cystitis when the offend or GP suspects a specific origin of infection, it sends the patient to a urologist, a specialist in the urinary tract in both sexes. We treats diseases related to it: malformations, urinary reflux, kidney stones, tumors, diseases of the bladder.


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