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Eruptive : Definition, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Tuesday, September 25th 2012. | General

Eruptive Definition

Rash – pimples, spot, red – a sign visible on the skin that can be linked to a number of conditions or diseases.

The rash usually occurs suddenly and may be limited to the skin (rash) or be present at the mucosal level (exanthem).

Different types of eruption are described by their appearance, location and accompanying signs:

  • Rash is a redness that fades pressure and is often associated with a rash illness infant;
  • The vesicles are small detachment of the skin containing a few drops of liquid;
  • Purpura is dark red to purple and continues to pressure and can be linked to serious diseases such as meningitis or thrombocytopenic purpura;
  • Allergy causes a rash in the form of raised red patches that may itch;
  • Eczema is a red rash that occurs on the skin dry and itchy.

rash on hand

Eruptive fever of the child?

Eruptive fevers in children are very common symptoms.

They correspond to a combination of fever and buttons (hives) on the body and possibly the mucous membranes (tongue, mouth).

The combination of fever and buttons on the body is suggestive of a number of diseases.

Overlap with other information can generally make a diagnosis and provide treatment without the need to use additional tests (blood).

Causes of erythema morbiliforme?

Major diseases giving erythema morbiliforme: measles, rubella, roseola.

Erythema morbiliforme is characterized by small red spots flat or slightly raised scattered on the body. Found between these spots, areas of skin without buttons, it is called interval of healthy skin. This is one of the characteristics of this eruption. These lesions usually little scratch. The evolution is towards healing without scarring in a few days. This is the typical appearance of the rash that occur during measles.

Measles

It often affects the child between one and five years and of course the children not vaccinated or evil. Incubation lasts about ten days is the time that elapses between contact with the virus (usually in contact with a sick child) and the onset of the disease. These are the droplets of an ill who are contagious. The rash begins at the face (often behind the ears), and will extend down to the feet in three or four days.Fever is constant and very high (40 ° C), and precedes the rash disappears when it reaches the whole body. The child’s eyes and runny noses and coughs a lot.

Rubella

It affects children between two and fifteen years of age and children not vaccinated or evil.Incubation lasts two to three weeks. These are the droplets of an ill who are contagious.Fever is moderate (38 to 38.5 ° C), there are glands in the neck. The rash is less marked than in measles and lasts three or four days.

Roseola

It reaches infants between six months and two years. It is characterized by fever of 39-40 ° C well tolerated which lasts three days. Then, as soon as there rash, fever ceases.

Infectious mononucleosis

It usually affects adolescents, by transmission through saliva. It is characterized by fever, sore throat, swollen glands in the neck and deep fatigue. The rash is not constant and is favored by certain antibiotics

Causes of scarlatiniform erythema?

Scarlet fever is the main cause of this type of rash may also occur as a result of taking certain medications.

The scarlatiniform erythema is characterized by large flat red spots on the skin.

There are no gaps between the healthy skin patches which gives a diffuse redness of the skin, just like a sunburn. If you press on these spots for a short time, the redness disappears only to reappear moments later.

These lesions usually do not scratch. These plates will disappear in a few days. There is often a significant scaling, that is to say, the skin will come off in some places and large pieces fall like after a sunburn. This rash does not leave scars.

This is the typical appearance of the rash that occur in scarlet fever.

Scarlet fever is caused by a bacterium, streptococcus. It is characterized by fever and sore throat and rash is diffuse.

The involvement of the tongue, often strawberry, is suggestive of the disease. Antibiotic treatment is imperative.

Some medications can cause the same rash.

Causes vesicular rash?

Vesicles are small detachment of the skin, which contain a liquid drop. This gives the impression of a small bubble placed on the skin. The gallbladder is usually soft and a little shiny. The lesions are often itchyThe change is to a drying of the lesion in a few days, until the appearance of a crust. A small scar can persist for some time. This is the typical appearance of the rash encountered during chickenpox.

Chickenpox

The incubation period is two weeks. It is a highly contagious disease through the liquid contained in the vesicles. Fever is low, lasts two or three days and then the rash appears.

Vesicles affect the entire body including the scalp lesions and scratching a lot

Shingles

Shingles is more rare in children, it is due to the same virus that causes chickenpox. Vesicles do not affect the whole body, grouped according to a particular location, generally one side of the body, often along a side of the thorax. These lesions can be very painful.

What support?

Eruptive fevers are very common diseases that may be poorly tolerated due to high fever or itching of the skin.

Good personal hygiene, treatment of fever and home maintenance are the main steps to be taken in case of spotted fever in children.

It will be to ensure the best comfort for the child and to avoid as much contamination environment. Some simple measures often improve the comfort of the child.

Treat fever

This treatment is based as much on drugs than on simple hygiene measures:

  • Does not cover the child too. A simple cotton jersey on the body of your child is more than adequate;
  • Do not overheat the room. A temperature of around 20 ° C is ideal;
  • A warm bath always proves effective. A bath fifteen minutes in water at 2 ° C below the temperature (water at 37 ° C if the rectal temperature is 39 ° C) is a great way to to reduce fever. Care must be taken regularly wet the head and hair with the bath water;
  • Avoid dehydration. A good way is to regularly drink small amounts of the child.

Ensure a healthy skin and body

measles_rubella_scarlet fever_infectious mononucleosis

Bath. Your child has buttons on the body? There is no reason not to give him room. Rather, it may be a good time for him.

In the case of measles, rubella, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, there is no risk of superinfection of the skin. The bath will be useful to treat fever and soothe the sensation of heat to the skin.

Nails. During chickenpox, the risk of secondary infection of the skin is very important, good hygiene is proving crucial. We think, therefore, cut the nails very short and clean them regularly. Two baths a day with antiseptic solutions are needed.

Nose. In cases of measles, children generally have significant flow to the eyes and nose. Local disinfection with saline helps prevent infection.

Eviction school

Any child with an eruptive fever should not return to community (nursery school) until complete healing of the disease. Home maintenance is often the only possible solution. This measure allows to limit the epidemic. Of course, it is not to isolate the child in her room and forbid contact with others. The goal is to prevent it from contaminating non-immunized children.Adults have generally presented the illness or have been vaccinated and are not at risk.

However, we must be particularly careful with pregnant women with these diseases can be very serious in the case of rubella in early pregnancy or chickenpox at the time of delivery.

Eruption Treatment

In some cases, specific treatments are needed.

  • Scarlet: antibiotic treatment for seven days is imperative. It treats the disease and prevent complications.
  • Chickenpox : disinfection of the skin is usually sufficient.Medication against itching is often useful.
  • Measles : it is necessary to regularly clean the nose and eyes with physiological saline. Secondary bacterial infections are common (otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia). In these cases, we will use an antibiotic treatment.

What risks during pregnancy?

Generally mild disease in children, eruptive fevers can have serious consequences if they occur during pregnancy.

Rubella and Pregnancy

The risk of this infection depends on when the contamination occurs during pregnancy. In early pregnancy (before the eighth week), the main risk is that a miscarriage. 15 to 25% of infants presenting birth defects if the mother contracts rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy. This risk decreases thereafter to become almost zero at the end of pregnancy.

Malformations of the newborn are complex. They affect the ear (hearing loss risk), the eye (cataract and damage the retina), heart (congenital heart disease), bone (bone malformation) and brain (psychomotor retardation).

Prevention through routine immunization of all non-immune women (that is to say, who have not had rubella or who have not been vaccinated) of childbearing age.

Chickenpox and pregnancy

Unlike rubella, chickenpox is more serious if it occurs at the time of delivery. Congenital malformations due to chickenpox contracted in early pregnancy exist but are rare.

Varicella in a woman who gives birth is dangerous for the newborn, as it will present a chickenpox during the first days of life. These forms very early disease are severe lung damage is likely to cause the death of the newborn.

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