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HPV: Human Papilloma Viruses

Sunday, August 12th 2012. | Bacteria, Disease, Skin, Hair and Nails

Which Diseases Cause the HPV?

The family of human papilloma virus (HPV) has many different types that are responsible for different diseases. 

Some cause benign skin lesions (warts), mucous membranes of the genital and anal areas (warts) or extragenital (papillomas of the mouth) or of the respiratory (recurrent respiratory papillomatosis). These types of HPV, which are mainly HPV 6 and 11, are called Abas risk. Other types are involved in the development of precancerous lesions and cancers of various organs first and foremost the cervix.

These are high risk HPV, called oncogenes, the most common are HPV 16 and 18.

hpv

Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) Warts (img thanks to papilloma22.blogspot.com)

How Often of HPV?

Skin warts are very common in children and adolescents, but they can be at any age. People who have undergone transplantation are at high risk because of the treatment they are taking to prevent graft rejection (immunosuppressive drugs): after a few years, over 90% have warts.

  • Genital infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered sexually transmitted infection (STI) most common. Estimated to affect 30 million women and men around the world. The United States reported one million new cases each year. The frequency of anogenital warts is especially high among people infected with the AIDS virus (HIV).
  • Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease.
  • About 4% of all cancers are associated with HPV. In the U.S., an estimated 32,000 cases of cancer diagnosed in men and women in 2009 were attributable to HPV infection. For several years, we know with certainty that this infection is responsible for cervical cancer of the uterus. HPV oncogenes are involved in at least 80% of anal cancers and 40% to 60% of cancers of the vulva, vagina and penis. They have also been implicated in a subgroup of cancers of the head and neck.

What HPV Mode of Transmission?

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) is usually transmitted by direct skin to skin and, in genital infections, most often, but not exclusively, during penetrative sex.

A small lesion of the skin (abrasions) or mucous membranes is sufficient for the virus enters the body. Transmission may also occur indirectly through contaminated objects. Attendance at public places such as pools, gyms, sports clubs … is one of the modes of transmission typically cited for plantar warts skin.

All sexual practices may be contaminating, including oral sex, in heterosexual and homosexual couples. The more sexual partners, the greater the risk of transmission is important.Similarly, the existence of another sexually transmitted infection, by injuring the anogenital mucosa, facilitates contamination. Men have an important role in the transmission of HPV to women.

The infection can spread from a lesion by autoinoculation to another site. Finally, the virus can be transmitted from infected mother to her baby during childbirth (vertical transmission).

human papilloma virus

HPV 3 D (img thanks to prn.org)

Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) Sign

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are increasing in the skin and mucous membranes. They do not cause strong immune response.

An estimated three-quarters of women will have contact with HPV at some time or another in their lives.

In most cases, genital HPV infection occurs in 5 to 10 years after first intercourse. It is usually benign and will resolve spontaneously. Persistent infection (10% to 20% of cases) may lead to the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix which, if untreated, may develop into cancer.

These precancerous lesions appear on average three years after initial infection with HPV and cancer of the cervix after 20 years on average.

Skin Wart

Skin warts come in many different forms.

According to their appearance and location, it is possible to distinguish:

  • Say vulgar warts are by far the most frequent (60% to 70% of all warts). These are small tumors gray, a few millimeters thick, usually single or few. In some cases, they are larger and grouped, taking a look at “ground”. They are found usually on the backs of the hands and fingers. Common warts are painless unless they sit in the nails.
  • Plantar warts are most often unique, deep and painful (or endophytic warts myrmécies) awkward walking, and have small black dots on their surface. They can be multiple and superficial (mosaic warts). Plantar warts often relapses.
  • Filiform warts are common warts located on the face and neck. They can grow around the nostrils or mouth, the eyelids, at the beard.
  • Flat warts are barely raised lesions (as their name suggests), smooth, buff-colored. Numerous, they mainly affect the face, back of hands, knees and legs. The evolution of these warts is variable: they disappear quickly, spontaneously, but can recur after many years.

Warts are contagious by inoculation. In people, self-inoculation and the appearance of new warts are the most risk.

Anogenital Warts

The period between infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and the appearance of warts (incubation) is usually two to three months. Warts, or genital warts are painless.There are several types.

  • Genital warts are also known colloquially warts or warts because of their appearance budding, pink. In women, are found mainly in the vulva, lips, perineum, anus, but also in the vagina and cervix. In men, they sit above the prepuce, scrotum, around the orifice of the urethra and the anus.
  • Warts plans are not easy to see with the naked eye. They often present as multiple lesions confluent same locations as genital warts.

In children, if genital warts should evoke the hypothesis of sexual abuse, caution is advised. This is not the most common case and warts often result from a self-contamination from warts of the hands or contamination through the machine.

How are Warts?

About 20% to 30% regress spontaneously, but recurrences are common. In most cases they are not accompanied by physical signs.

However, we can observe from time to time, in some patients, bleeding sores, itching (pruritus), burning sensations, or episodes of inflammation of the vulva and vagina (vulvovaginitis), the glans (balanitis) and foreskin (posthitis) and / or pain during intercourse (dyspareunia).

Warts often resound negatively on social and sexual lives of patients.

The discovery of a condyloma should lead to a screening procedure for a precancerous or cancerous, as well as the infected person to his or her partner.

The oral Papillomas

Papillomas of the mouth are as small pink or whitish papules localized on the lips, tongue and / or inside the cheeks.

Patients often have associated common warts.

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis develops a predilection for two periods of life in children between ages 1 and 4 years and adults between 20 and 40.

In the first case, the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is from the mother during birth.

In the second, it takes place takes place during oral sex.

The disease is characterized by the formation of lesions that resemble warts and sit at the respiratory system, usually the larynx. They can also develop in the trachea, bronchi or lungs and cause a clogging of these organs. The patients have progressive hoarseness, a noise during the passage of air during breathing (stridor) and difficulty breathing.

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is usually mild but can be cancerous (3% to 4% of cases).

Precancerous Diseases

This pre cancerous stage is identified and must be subject to examination to clarify the risk.

HPV is sometimes responsible for diseases that pose a risk more or less important to become cancerous.

  • Bowen’s disease preferentially reached menopausal women, classically from the age of 50. It is manifested by flat lesions (macules) or raised (papules) brownish red, white or grayish ash gray, varying in number (single, multiple or sclerosis), measuring 1 to 1.5 cm and with or without itching (pruritus). They turn into cancer in 10% to 20% of cases.
  • The Bowenoid papulosis appears earlier than Bowen’s disease, between 25 and 35 years and rarely degenerates. Its lesions are localized at the vulva and can be isolated or associated with vulvar itching or discomfort during sexual intercourse.
  • The Buschke-Löwenstein giant condyloma acuminatum is located primarily in the coronal sulcus or around the anus. In rare cases, it grows in areas such as extragenital foot. This condyloma can turn into a cancer that is not aggressive (no metastases).
  • Oral florid papillomatosis represents a form of mucosal infection of the mouth region with human papillomavirus (HPV) may develop into cancer.

 

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