The family of human papilloma virus (HPV) has many different types that are responsible for different diseases.
Some cause benign skin lesions (warts), mucous membranes of the genital and anal areas (warts) or extragenital (papillomas of the mouth) or of the respiratory (recurrent respiratory papillomatosis). These types of HPV, which are mainly HPV 6 and 11, are called Abas risk. Other types are involved in the development of precancerous lesions and cancers of various organs first and foremost the cervix.
These are high risk HPV, called oncogenes, the most common are HPV 16 and 18.
Skin warts are very common in children and adolescents, but they can be at any age. People who have undergone transplantation are at high risk because of the treatment they are taking to prevent graft rejection (immunosuppressive drugs): after a few years, over 90% have warts.
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) is usually transmitted by direct skin to skin and, in genital infections, most often, but not exclusively, during penetrative sex.
A small lesion of the skin (abrasions) or mucous membranes is sufficient for the virus enters the body. Transmission may also occur indirectly through contaminated objects. Attendance at public places such as pools, gyms, sports clubs … is one of the modes of transmission typically cited for plantar warts skin.
All sexual practices may be contaminating, including oral sex, in heterosexual and homosexual couples. The more sexual partners, the greater the risk of transmission is important.Similarly, the existence of another sexually transmitted infection, by injuring the anogenital mucosa, facilitates contamination. Men have an important role in the transmission of HPV to women.
The infection can spread from a lesion by autoinoculation to another site. Finally, the virus can be transmitted from infected mother to her baby during childbirth (vertical transmission).
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are increasing in the skin and mucous membranes. They do not cause strong immune response.
An estimated three-quarters of women will have contact with HPV at some time or another in their lives.
In most cases, genital HPV infection occurs in 5 to 10 years after first intercourse. It is usually benign and will resolve spontaneously. Persistent infection (10% to 20% of cases) may lead to the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix which, if untreated, may develop into cancer.
These precancerous lesions appear on average three years after initial infection with HPV and cancer of the cervix after 20 years on average.
Skin warts come in many different forms.
According to their appearance and location, it is possible to distinguish:
Warts are contagious by inoculation. In people, self-inoculation and the appearance of new warts are the most risk.
The period between infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and the appearance of warts (incubation) is usually two to three months. Warts, or genital warts are painless.There are several types.
In children, if genital warts should evoke the hypothesis of sexual abuse, caution is advised. This is not the most common case and warts often result from a self-contamination from warts of the hands or contamination through the machine.
About 20% to 30% regress spontaneously, but recurrences are common. In most cases they are not accompanied by physical signs.
However, we can observe from time to time, in some patients, bleeding sores, itching (pruritus), burning sensations, or episodes of inflammation of the vulva and vagina (vulvovaginitis), the glans (balanitis) and foreskin (posthitis) and / or pain during intercourse (dyspareunia).
Warts often resound negatively on social and sexual lives of patients.
The discovery of a condyloma should lead to a screening procedure for a precancerous or cancerous, as well as the infected person to his or her partner.
Papillomas of the mouth are as small pink or whitish papules localized on the lips, tongue and / or inside the cheeks.
Patients often have associated common warts.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis develops a predilection for two periods of life in children between ages 1 and 4 years and adults between 20 and 40.
In the first case, the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is from the mother during birth.
In the second, it takes place takes place during oral sex.
The disease is characterized by the formation of lesions that resemble warts and sit at the respiratory system, usually the larynx. They can also develop in the trachea, bronchi or lungs and cause a clogging of these organs. The patients have progressive hoarseness, a noise during the passage of air during breathing (stridor) and difficulty breathing.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is usually mild but can be cancerous (3% to 4% of cases).
This pre cancerous stage is identified and must be subject to examination to clarify the risk.
HPV is sometimes responsible for diseases that pose a risk more or less important to become cancerous.