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Oropharynx (Inflammation of the tonsils)

Tuesday, August 14th 2012. | Disease, Respiratory System

Oropharynx Definition

Angina also called tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils or oropharynx.

Angina or acute tonsillitis is a bacterial or viral infection of the tonsils whose severity is related to complications when the causative agent is beta hemolytic streptococcus.

This bacterium can indeed be the cause of secondary events such as rheumatic fever, kidney dysfunction or malformations of the heart valves.

The generalization of rapid tests used to diagnose angina poor prognosis due to beta hemolytic streptococcus and suggest appropriate treatment.

Oropharynx

Oropharynx (Angina ) (img thanks to uc.edu)

Oropharynx Symptoms

Tonsillitis causes a sore throat to kind of tightness, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), pain in the ear (otalgia) an abrupt onset of fever usually accompanies the pain, and sometimes the appearance of lymph nodes under the chin (lymphadenopathy).

Pain and difficulty swallowing are most often in the foreground.

Oropharynx Diagnosis

The examination of the throat allows the diagnosis and identify the type of angina: red (erythematous), red with white spots (erythematous pulpy caused by a virus or beta hemolytic streptococcus), with a gray coating sticky (pseudo membranous which may be due to infectious mononucleosis), necrotic (related to poor dental hygiene generally) or blister (herpes or another virus).

The test allows rapid detection of streptococci in less than 10 minutes, whether the infection is related to the bacteria. If the test is positive, antibiotic treatment is imperative, whereas if the sore throat is viral, antibiotics are useless. These tests are available from general practitioners, pediatricians and emergency services.Their use has allowed since 2002 to reduce by over 30% of antibiotic prescription in children.

Oropharynx Complication

Locally, angina may be the cause of an abscess of the throat (peritonsillar abscess). When infection Beta Hemolytic Streptococcal, secondary complications of immune origin may appear: rheumatic fever, kidney disease, malformations of the heart valves. Nevertheless, all related to strep infections are not always the cause of these complications and heal sore throats usually spontaneously in 5-6 days without sequelae.

Treatment with penicillin has helped to reduce very significantly the risk of complications of tonsillitis in developed countries.

Different types of angina

Angina erythematous, erythemato-red pulpy or angina tends to occur in children under 12 years.

It is linked to infection with group A streptococcus in 25 to 50% of cases in children and in 10-20% of cases in adults. The tonsils are red sometimes covered with white spots or pus.

Often there are painful glands under the chin. The rapid test shows whether an anti-streptococcal necessary. In case of frequent or recurrent abscesses associated, a tonsillectomy can be offered.

In pseudo-membranous angina, the tonsils are covered with a pearly white or grayish coating. Glands large and painful are most often associated. The main cause of this type of angina is mononucleosis in young adults and adolescents.

Angina blister is caused by a virus and is characterized by vesicles on pharyngeal mucosa inflammatory. It is most often related to infection with herpes viruses or enterovirus.

Ulcerative necrotic angina are characterized by erosion at the tonsils sometimes associated with necrosis (tissue death) that takes a black appearance. In adults, the most common cause of Vincent’s angina, which combines two bacteria: a fusiform bacillus and spirillum.

Pharyngeal syphilis takes a form quite similar.

Oropharynx Treatment

The rapid test used to guide therapy.

In all cases, an anti-pyretic and pain is necessary to calm the unpleasant signs of the disease. If a bacterial infection, antibiotic treatment is prescribed: penicillin or macrolide if allergic.

These treatments must be prescribed on a short duration (6 days). In case of viral infection, treatment of fever and pain is enough.

In the absence of improvement after 3 days, it is necessary to re-consult a doctor.

 

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