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Pyelonephritis : Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Thursday, July 26th 2012. | Uterine system

Pyelonephritis Definition

Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the urinary tract with involvement of the renal parenchyma. It’s usually caused by bacterial infection spreading from the kidney to lower urinary tract (the urethra to the bladder, then the ureter into the kidney).

More rarely, transmission of infection is through blood. There are two forms of pyelonephritis : an acute and a chronic form. Women are affected far more often than men.

Pyelonephritis Causes

Usually the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli or E. coli) are responsible for the disease. Enterococci, staphylococci, Proteus or Klebsiella may also be the cause of pyelonephritis.

Factors favoring pyelonephritis:

  • Urinary obstructive syndromes (kidney stones, prostate enlargement, tumor, pregnancy, etc.).
  • Metabolic diseases with susceptibility to infection (diabetes, gout)
  • Urinary tract malformations
  • Vesiculo-ureteral reflux
  • Catheters in the bladder promote urinary tract infections
  • Weakened immune system

Acute and Chronic Pyelonephritis (img: thanks to allhealthsite.com)

Pyelonephritis Symptoms

Acute pyelonephritis causes the following symptoms:

  • Intense feeling of illness
  • High fever and chills
  • Pain in the sides and back
  • Frequent and painful urination

In case of chronic pyelonephritis, symptoms are more attenuated and less features and develop gradually:

Pyelonephritis Diagnosis

  • History with consideration of symptoms
  • Urinalysis (urine cultures)
  • Blood tests
  • Ultrasound and radiography of the urinary tract (detection of an obstacle on the urinary tract as kidney stones, urinary tract stricture or vesicoureteral reflux)

Pyelonephritis Treatment Options

With the introduction of appropriate treatment, acute pyelonephritis cured in most cases. Chronic pyelonephritis develops over several years and must be subject to regular medical control. The occurrence of acute attacks requires appropriate treatment.

Pyelonephritis General measures:

  • Bed rest
  • Drink plenty

Pyelonephritis Drugs Treatment:

  • Antibiotics
  •  Spasmolytic and analgesic if necessary

Pyelonephritis Surgery Treatment:

The surgery aims to eliminate the barrier to the flow of urine (prostatic hypertrophy, congenital malformations in children).

Pyelonephritis Possible Complications

In untreated, abscesses can form in the kidneys, which can cause kidney failure. In the worst cases, bacteria can cause septicemia, life-threatening.

Pyelonephritis Preventive Measures

The essential preventive measure is to drink plenty.

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