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Salmonellosis, Salmonella Enteritis

Friday, July 27th 2012. | Bacteria, Digestive System, Disease

Salmonellosis Definition

Salmonella is a bacteria-type bacilli (rod shaped). We are nearly 2000 kinds of which about 120 cause infections in humans, known as salmonellosis. These infections are classified according to their clinical picture. Thus, some infections are limited to the gastrointestinal tract and are characterized by vomiting and diarrhea while others, more serious, the alternate condition as typhus or paratyphoid.

Salmonellosis Causes

Salmonella enteritis is caused by Salmonella enteritidis and diarrhea. These types of bacteria are widespread throughout the world both in humans and in animals. Some animals, especially poultry are their main tank. In humans, transmission occurs mainly through consumption of food contaminated with salmonella, such as raw or undercooked eggs, raw milk, poultry or meat.

A fecal-oral transmission from person to person is possible in poor hygiene conditions.

Pathogens reach the stomach through contaminated food and cause a local infection in the small intestine by penetrating the intestinal mucosa and multiplying there.

Salmonella

Salmonellosis (img : Thanks to : knowabouthealth.com)

Salmonellosis Symptoms

The incubation period of salmonella enteritis is very short, ranging from a few hours to 3 days.

  • Sudden nausea with vomiting
  • Stomach ache
  • Watery diarrhea, usually without blood
  • Sometimes fever
  • Symptoms usually last 2-3 days or more.

Salmonellosis Diagnosis

  • Presumptive diagnosis based on history (eg. Illness of several individuals who shared the same meal)
  • Identification of the pathogen in the stool
  • The pathogen is rarely identified in blood.

Salmonellosis Treatment Options

If vomiting and diarrhea, symptomatic treatment of drinking a lot to compensate for the loss of fluid and electrolytes is necessary. Antibiotics will be indicated in cases of weakened immune systems or systemic diseases.

Salmonellosis Possible Complications

Especially among young children and the elderly, there is a risk of dehydration (dry tongue and coated, sunken eyes, hollow voice, drop in blood pressure, calf cramps, thrombosis) associated with inadequate consumption of beverages.

Salmonellosis Preventive Measures

  • A first infection with salmonella provides no immunity. In addition, there is no vaccine against salmonella enteritis, unlike typhus.
  • The main protection is to maintain good hygiene when handling foods may contain salmonella (food storage below 10 ° C, the defrost water should not touch other foods, consume immediately egg dishes).
  • Heat in the microwave dishes evenly.
  • Caution is also required abroad: cooking, peel or not to consume them.

 

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